46,XY DSD and limb abnormalities in a female with a de novo LHX9 missense mutation

Mia Kunitomo, Aditi Khokhar, Christina Kresge, Folorunsho Edobor-Osula, Beth A. Pletcher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Differences in sex development (DSD) are a group of rare conditions involving genes, hormones and reproductive organs, including genitals. Although these disorders are common, information about the molecular causes remain limited. Many genes have been identified in association with DSD but in many cases the causative gene could not be identified. The Lhx9 gene has been studied in mice and birds, and biallelic mutations in this gene have been found to cause 46,XY DSD and limb abnormalities. So far two variants of LHX9 have been identified in 46,XY individuals with testicular regression, micropenis and hypospadias. We report a de novo heterozygous missense variant in LHX9 in a girl with 46,XY DSD and finger and toe abnormalities. It was previously predicted that a mutation in LHX9 would not cause extragenital anomalies in light of prior animal studies, but our report adds to the limited knowledge of the phenotype observed in humans with a variant in LHX9. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case with this combination of abnormalities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2887-2890
Number of pages4
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


  • LHX9
  • limb abnormalities
  • sex reversal

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