A Closed-Loop Control Scheme for Intraaortic Balloon Pumping

John A. Zelano, John K.J. Li, Walter Welkowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The beneficial hemodynamic effects of IABP are critically dependent on balloon timing relative to the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. A microprocessor-based controller has been developed to implement real-time automation of IABP using P-R intervals to regulate balloon deflation and systolic time intervals to trigger balloon inflation in a semi-automatic fashion. Experiments were performed on anesthetized open-chest dogs. Simultaneous measurement of aortic pressure and flow, coronary flow, and left ventricular pressure were recorded. Muscle segment lengths in normal and ischemic border zones were also measured from implanted pairs of endocardial ultrasonic dimension gages. P-waves were obtained from atrial cardiograms, and heart sounds were detected using a special filtering circuit. Both signals were input together with ECG to automate IABP timing. Systolic time intervals were calculated in real-time. IABP efficacy was assessed from changes in aortic flow, coronary flow, tension time index, end diastolic pressure, and the endocardial viability ratio. Comparisons were made between automated and manual timing set by a certified technician. Results indicate that automated timing yielded equivalent hemodynamic enhancement with greater ease of adjustment. A closed-loop control scheme is proposed which allows complete automatic device operation and the capability to rapidly achieve the optimum of any directly measurable hemodynamic variable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)182-192
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1990

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomedical Engineering


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