A comparative study on the effect of Zr, Sn, and Ti on the crystallization behavior of nepheline glass

Emily T. Nienhuis, Natalie J. Smith-Gray, Gabriel N. Cocking, José Marcial, Yingcheng Zhang, Mostafa Ahmadzadeh, Ashutosh Goel, John S. McCloy

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In alkali aluminosilicate glasses, additions of 4+ cations like Zr and Ti are often added to promote crystallization. In this study, Zr, Ti, or Sn are progressively substituted for Si in nepheline (NaAlSiO4) glass to determine their impact on the crystallization behavior. For glasses homogeneous on quenching, up to NaAlZr0.075Si0.925O4, NaAlSn0.100Si0.900O4, and NaAlTi0.300Si0.700O4, respectively, crystallization temperatures were investigated by thermal analysis. A subset of compositions was subjected to additional thermal analysis, varying heating rate and particle size, to investigate the subtleties of crystallization behavior. Subsequent heat treatment of glass powders was performed to maximize crystallization, and glass-ceramic microstructure was assessed by optical microscopy and electron microprobe, while crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. In all cases the major crystalline phase was orthorhombic carnegieite, which accommodated Ti in its structure but not Zr or Sn, and excess 4+ cations formed MO2, i.e., brookite, baddeleyite, and cassiterite, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number120970
JournalJournal of Non-Crystalline Solids
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry


  • Aluminosilicate glass
  • Electron probe microanalysis
  • Glass-ceramic
  • Nucleating agents
  • Optical microscopy
  • Thermal analysis
  • X-ray diffraction


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