The volume densities of type II alveolar cell cytoplasmic organelles and alveolar surface densities were estimated by established stereologic procedures. The morphometric measurements were obtained from normal dog lungs (in situ) and isolated dog lungs perfused for 30‐minute, 1‐hour, and 2‐hour periods. The type II cell lamellar body volume densities and the alveolar surface densities progressively decreased as the times of perfusion were increased. The volume densities of the granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum progressively increased during the periods of perfusion. These morphometric parameters from lungs in situ and isolated lungs suggest that changes occur in pulmonary surfactant synthesis and activity during perfusion. It is further postulated that progressive increases in the rates of surfactant removal and/or inactivation during perfusion may contribute to spontaneous edema in lungs isolated for periods exceeding two hours. The morphologic and physiologic integrity of isolated perfused lung preparations, widely used as models of lungs in vivo, in situ requires further evaluation.
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