A multiple impact approach for non-destructive measurement of fruit firmness and maturity

N. Ozer, B. A. Engel, J. E. Simon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Measurement of fruit firmness using impact response is greatly influenced by the angle and location of the impact on the fruit surface. To overcome this variability, a method to measure fruit firmness non-destructively using a multiple impact approach was developed. Incorporating impact response information for cantaloupes in various melon surface locations resulted in a correlation of r = 0.86 compared to a destructive flesh firmness test using a penetrometer and r = 0.94 with elastic modulus evaluated from a parallel plate loading test. This non-destructive method for estimating cantaloupe firmness proved to be useful for the classification of cantaloupes into five ripeness stages at a significance level of α = 0.05. Rigorous examination of fruit sensitivity to multiple impacts showed negligible effects with regard to physical damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)871-876
Number of pages6
JournalTransactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1998
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)


  • Automation
  • Color analysis
  • Elastic modulus
  • Fruit grading
  • Fruit quality
  • Human grading
  • Melons

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