TY - JOUR

T1 - A New Approach to Numerical Computation of Hausdorff Dimension of Iterated Function Systems

T2 - Applications to Complex Continued Fractions

AU - Falk, Richard S.

AU - Nussbaum, Roger D.

N1 - Funding Information:
The work of the second author was supported by NSF grant DMS-1201328.
Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

PY - 2018/10/1

Y1 - 2018/10/1

N2 - In a previous paper (Falk and Nussbaum, in Cm Eigenfunctions of Perron–Frobenius operators and a new approach to numerical computation of hausdorff dimension: applications in R1, 2016. ArXiv e-prints arXiv:1612.00870), the authors developed a new approach to the computation of the Hausdorff dimension of the invariant set of an iterated function system or IFS and studied some applications in one dimension. The key idea, which has been known in varying degrees of generality for many years, is to associate to the IFS a parametrized family of positive, linear, Perron-Frobenius operators Ls. In our context, Ls is studied in a space of Cm functions and is not compact. Nevertheless, it has a strictly positive Cm eigenfunction vs with positive eigenvalue λs equal to the spectral radius of Ls. Under appropriate assumptions on the IFS, the Hausdorff dimension of the invariant set of the IFS is the value s= s∗ for which λs= 1. To compute the Hausdorff dimension of an invariant set for an IFS associated to complex continued fractions, (which may arise from an infinite iterated function system), we approximate the eigenvalue problem by a collocation method using continuous piecewise bilinear functions. Using the theory of positive linear operators and explicit a priori bounds on the partial derivatives of the strictly positive eigenfunction vs, we are able to give rigorous upper and lower bounds for the Hausdorff dimension s∗, and these bounds converge to s∗ as the mesh size approaches zero. We also demonstrate by numerical computations that improved estimates can be obtained by the use of higher order piecewise tensor product polynomial approximations, although the present theory does not guarantee that these are strict upper and lower bounds. An important feature of our approach is that it also applies to the much more general problem of computing approximations to the spectral radius of positive transfer operators, which arise in many other applications.

AB - In a previous paper (Falk and Nussbaum, in Cm Eigenfunctions of Perron–Frobenius operators and a new approach to numerical computation of hausdorff dimension: applications in R1, 2016. ArXiv e-prints arXiv:1612.00870), the authors developed a new approach to the computation of the Hausdorff dimension of the invariant set of an iterated function system or IFS and studied some applications in one dimension. The key idea, which has been known in varying degrees of generality for many years, is to associate to the IFS a parametrized family of positive, linear, Perron-Frobenius operators Ls. In our context, Ls is studied in a space of Cm functions and is not compact. Nevertheless, it has a strictly positive Cm eigenfunction vs with positive eigenvalue λs equal to the spectral radius of Ls. Under appropriate assumptions on the IFS, the Hausdorff dimension of the invariant set of the IFS is the value s= s∗ for which λs= 1. To compute the Hausdorff dimension of an invariant set for an IFS associated to complex continued fractions, (which may arise from an infinite iterated function system), we approximate the eigenvalue problem by a collocation method using continuous piecewise bilinear functions. Using the theory of positive linear operators and explicit a priori bounds on the partial derivatives of the strictly positive eigenfunction vs, we are able to give rigorous upper and lower bounds for the Hausdorff dimension s∗, and these bounds converge to s∗ as the mesh size approaches zero. We also demonstrate by numerical computations that improved estimates can be obtained by the use of higher order piecewise tensor product polynomial approximations, although the present theory does not guarantee that these are strict upper and lower bounds. An important feature of our approach is that it also applies to the much more general problem of computing approximations to the spectral radius of positive transfer operators, which arise in many other applications.

KW - Continued fractions

KW - Hausdorff dimension

KW - Positive transfer operators

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U2 - 10.1007/s00020-018-2485-z

DO - 10.1007/s00020-018-2485-z

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85052853826

SN - 0378-620X

VL - 90

JO - Integral Equations and Operator Theory

JF - Integral Equations and Operator Theory

IS - 5

M1 - 61

ER -