As novel metallodrugs continue to emerge, they are evaluated using models, including zebrafish, that offer unique sublethal endpoints. Testing metal-based anticancer compounds with high-throughput zebrafish toxicological assays requires analytical methods with the sensitivity to detect these sublethal tissue doses in very small sample masses (e.g., egg mass 100 μg). A robust bioanalytical model, zebrafish embryos coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for measurement of delivered dose, creates a very effective means for screening metal-based chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we used ICPMS quantitation with the zebrafish embryo assays to detect metal equivalents at multiple response endpoints for two compounds, the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin and ruthenium (Ru)-based prospective metallodrug, PMC79. We hypothesized that cisplatin and PMC79 have different mechanisms for inducing apoptosis and result in similar lesions but different potencies following water-borne exposure. An ICPMS method was developed to detect the metal in waterborne solution and tissue (detection limit: 5 parts per trillion for Ru or platinum [Pt]). The Ru-based compound was more potent (LC50: 7.8 μm) than cisplatin (LC50: 158 μm) and induced disparate lesions. Lethality from cisplatin exposure exhibited a threshold (values >15 mg/L) while no threshold was observed for delayed hatching (lowest observed adverse effect level 3.75 mg/L cisplatin; 8.7 Pt (ng)/organism). The Ru organometallic did not have a threshold for lethality. Cisplatin-induced delayed hatching was investigated further by larval-Pt distribution and preferentially distributed to the chorion. We propose that zebrafish embryo-larval assays coupled with ICPMS serve as a powerful platform to evaluate relative potency and toxic effects of metallodrug candidates.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Applied Toxicology|
|State||Published - Aug 2019|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- anticancer agents
- ruthenium organometallic compounds