A proposed multigeneration protocol for Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to evaluate effects of endocrine disruptors

P. J. Patyna, R. A. Davi, T. F. Parkerton, R. P. Brown, K. R. Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


Definitive data on reproductive impairment of chronically exposed populations may be required to assess the appropriateness of the existing test methods for hazard identification and prioritization of endocrine modulators. Multigeneration toxicity testing protocols for wildlife receptors are lacking. To help address this gap we describe a multigeneration fish assay using the freshwater fish, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). This test species has been used for the evaluation of carcinogenic, teratogenic and reproductive effects and is sensitive to estrogen exposure producing ovo-testis, altered biochemical parameters and phenotypic characteristics. Due to the short life cycle, a multigeneration test with medaka can be conducted in 1 year. Endpoints evaluated include: survival, growth, sex ratio, fecundity, embryonic lesion occurrence, embryonic stage development, gonadal and hepatic somatic indices, histopathology and biochemical parameters. As new endpoints are developed they can be incorporated into the protocol. Results of a positive control (17β-estradiol) study are presented to give an indication of the baseline associated with various test endpoints and to highlight the importance of nutrition in the experimental design. 17β-Estradiol treatment induced vitellogenin production in male and female medaka, feminized males, and disrupted egg production. The proposed protocol provides researchers with an effective multigeneration fish test that can be used to examine potential effects of stressors at the population, individual, cellular and subcellular level. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-220
Number of pages10
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Aug 15 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


  • Endocrine disruption
  • Japanese medaka
  • Multigeneration toxicity test


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