A Review of Endoscopic Simulation: Current Evidence on Simulators and Curricula

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Upper and lower endoscopy is an important tool that is being utilized more frequently by general surgeons. Training in therapeutic endoscopic techniques has become a mandatory requirement for general surgery residency programs in the United States. The Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery has been developed to train and assess competency in these advanced techniques. Simulation has been shown to increase the skill and learning curve of trainees in other surgical disciplines. Several types of endoscopy simulators are commercially available; mechanical trainers, animal based, and virtual reality or computer-based simulators all have their benefits and limitations. However they have all been shown to improve trainee's endoscopic skills. Endoscopic simulators will play a critical role as part of a comprehensive curriculum designed to train the next generation of surgeons. We reviewed recent literature related to the various types of endoscopic simulators and their use in an educational curriculum, and discuss the relevant findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-23
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Surgical Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Education


  • Endoscopy
  • Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery
  • Simulation
  • Surgical Education
  • Surgical Training

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