Background. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a frequently fatal complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). IPS is associated with elevated bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and lipopolysaccharide, both of which are potent activators of endothelial cells (ECs). EC expression of the adhesion molecule CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1) has been shown to be a major regulator of pulmonary inflammation in various experimental models. Methods. Using a well-established murine BMT system in which lung injury and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) are induced by minor histocompatibility antigenic differences between donor and host, the RNase Protection Assay, mice deficient in ICAM-1 expression, and a monoclonal blocking antibody to ICAM, we evaluated the role of the pulmonary vascular expression of CD54 in the development of IPS. Results. Enhanced pulmonary vascular expression of ICAM-1 coincided with the development of IPS. When ICAM-1 -/- mice were used as allogeneic BMT recipients, IPS severity (measured by lung histopathology, BAL cellularity, and cytokine expression) was significantly reduced compared with wild-type controls. Similar results were also observed when wild-type recipients were treated with a monoclonal blocking antibody to ICAM-1. Surprisingly, ICAM-1 had differential effects on leukocyte infiltration into GvHD target organs; ICAM-1 deficiency had no impact on intestinal histopathology, whereas ICAM-1 -/- BMT recipients had significantly enhanced hepatic injury. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that although the expression of ICAM-1 is critical for the development of IPS, different mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment are operative in other GvHD target organs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Bone marrow transplantation
- Graft-versus-host disease