A very hot high-redshift cluster of galaxies: More trouble for Ω0 = 1

Megan Donahue, G. Mark Voit, Isabella Gioia, Gerry Luppino, John P. Hughes, John T. Stocke

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106 Scopus citations


We have observed the most distant (z = 0.829) cluster of galaxies in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) with the ASCA and ROSAT satellites. We find an X-ray temperature of 12.3+3.1-2.2 keV for this cluster, and the ROSAT map reveals significant substructure. The high temperature of MS 1054-0321 is consistent with both its approximate velocity dispersion, based on the redshifts of 12 cluster members that we have obtained at the Keck and the Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes, and with its weak lensing signature. The X-ray temperature of this cluster implies a virial mass ∼7.4 × 1014 h-1 M⊙, if the mean matter density in the universe equals the critical value (Ω0 = 1), or larger if Ω0 < 1. Finding such a hot, massive cluster in the EMSS is extremely improbable if clusters grew from Gauss an perturbations in an Ω0 = 1 universe. Combining the assumptions that Ω0 = 1 and that the intial perturbations were Gaussian with the observed X-ray temperature function at low redshift, we show that this probability of this cluster occurring in the volume sampled by the EMSS is less than a few times 10-5. Nor is MS 1054-0321 the only hot cluster at high redshift; the only two other z > 0.5 EMSS clusters already observed with ASCA also have temperatures exceeding 8 keV. Assuming again that the initial perturbations were Gaussian and Ω0 = 1, we find that each one is improbable at the less than 10-2 level. These observations, along with the fact that these luminosities and temperatures of the high-z clusters all agree with the low-z Lx-Tx relation, argue strongly that Ω0 < 1. Otherwise, the initial perturbations must be non-Gaussian, if these clusters' temperatures do indeed reflect their gravitational potentials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)550-557
Number of pages8
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2 PART 1
StatePublished - Aug 1 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Cosmology: observations
  • Dark matter
  • Galaxies: clusters: individual (MS 1054-0321)
  • Galaxies: interactions
  • Intergalactic medium
  • X-rays: galaxies


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