Accelerated Dissipation of Free and Immobilized Water Facilitating the Intramolecular Dehydration of N-Xylosamine and Conversion Improvement of the Amadori Rearrangement Product of Aspartic Acid-Xylose Reaction

Ao Zhang, Heping Cui, Khizar Hayat, Qiang Zhang, Xiaoming Zhang, Chi Tang Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Compared to the method of aqueous Maillard reaction at atmospheric pressure tandem vacuum concentration, a coupling dehydration method combining spray drying and vacuum drying was used to increase aspartic acid-xylose conversion to the Amadori rearrangement product (ARP). The water activity and moisture states were found as effective indicators to characterize the degree of dehydration of Maillard reaction intermediates and efficient formation of ARP. During the vacuum drying process, the water activity of the product powder decreased significantly. Because the formation of ARP was accompanied by intramolecular dehydration, combining spray drying and vacuum drying increased the proportion of bound water in the vacuum-dried product. Free water was easily dissipated via dehydration, which then converted the immobilized water continuously to free water, and the decreased immobilized water further converted the bound water to immobilized water. The reduction in bound water contributed to the intramolecular dehydration of N-substituted d-xylosamine, which would further be transformed to be the ARP through an intramolecular rearrangement. The yield of ARP was increased from 1.68 to 21.53% after spray drying. The ARP yield was substantially increased up to 77.9% by subsequent vacuum drying.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14662-14670
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Volume69
Issue number48
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 8 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Keywords

  • Amadori rearrangement product
  • aspartic acid
  • moisture states
  • spray drying
  • vacuum drying
  • water activity

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