Accelerating aroma formation of raw soy sauce using low intensity sonication

Xianli Gao, Ermeng Liu, Junke Zhang, Lixin Yang, Qingrong Huang, Sui Chen, Haile Ma, Chi Tang Ho, Lan Liao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Sonication was applied to accelerate aroma formation and shorten fermentation time of soy sauce. Effects of sonication at 68 kHz on the aroma and aroma-producing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Tetragenococcus halophilus in moromis were investigated using sensory evaluation, SPME–GC–olfactometry/MS, viable cell counting and scanning electron microscopy. The sensory scores of caramel-like, fruity, alcoholic, floral, malty, smoky, sour and overall aroma in sonicated moromis were enhanced by 23.4%, 23.2%, 13.6%, 12.8%, 7.6%, 6.3%, 5.6% and 14.4%, respectively. Sensory scores of samples fermented for 90–180 days were higher than those of controls fermented for 180 days, suggesting that sonication could reduce fermentation time by 90 days. Thirty-four aroma-active compounds were detected from 85 volatile compounds in soy sauces. Sonication accelerated and elevated the formation of aroma compounds by chemical reactions. It also markedly increased the reproduction and cell permeability of both microorganisms in moromis, which favored the formation of aroma compounds by both strains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number127118
JournalFood Chemistry
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Food Science


  • Aroma compound
  • Sonication
  • Soy sauce
  • Tetragenococcus halophilus
  • Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

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