Background: Studies have had conflicting results regarding the influence of acid-suppression medications (ASMs) during hospitalization on the recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the association between recurrent CDI and ASM use in inpatients was performed. Relevant literature was identified using Medline, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. All human studies were considered regardless of publication date. Case-control and cohort studies and clinical trials were included if they contained the necessary information to calculate appropriate statistics related to the objective of this study. Review articles, meta-analyses, and commentaries were excluded; however, their references were searched to identify any studies missed. The random-effects model was selected since significant heterogeneity in study design was identified. To evaluate the sensitivity of the analysis various subgroup analyses were performed. Results: Our search identified 9 studies involving 5668 patients of whom 1003 (17.7%) developed recurrent CDI. Patients on ASM were 64% more likely to develop recurrent CDI than patients not on ASM (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.13-2.38; P =. 009; I2 = 79.54%). Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use was associated with an 84% increased risk of recurrent CDI versus no ASM (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.18-2.85; P =. 007; I2 = 83.4%). Conclusions: ASM use during hospitalization was associated with a 64% increase in recurrent CDI. The association was greater with PPI use. Due to significant heterogeneity in the analyses, additional studies are essential to further elucidate iatrogenic effects of ASM. Unnecessary PPI use should be discontinued.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases
- Clostridioides difficile infection
- acid suppression
- histamine 2 receptor antagonists
- proton pump inhibitors