Actin dynamics, regulated by RhoA-LIMK-cofilin signaling, mediates rod photoreceptor axonal retraction after retinal injury

Weiwei Wang, Eva Halasz, Ellen Townes-Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PURPOSE. Retraction of the axon terminals of rod photoreceptors after retinal detachment breaks the first synapse in the visual pathway, resulting in visual impairment. Previous work showed that the mechanism of axonal retraction involves RhoA signaling and its downstream effector LIM Kinase (LIMK) activation. We examined the response of the downstream component cofilin, a direct binding protein of actin filaments, as well as the regulation by RhoA-LIMK-Cofilin signaling of actin assembly/disassembly, in the presynaptic ribbon terminal of injured rod cells. METHODS. Injury was produced by retinal detachment or rod cell isolation. Detached porcine retina was probed for levels and localization of phosphorylated cofilin with Western blots and confocal microscopy, whereas rod cell cultures of dissociated salamander retina were examined for filamentous actin assembly/disassembly with a barbed end assay and phalloidin staining. RESULTS. A detachment increased phosphorylation of cofilin in retinal explants; phosphorylation occurred in rod terminals in sections of detached retina. Isolation of rod cells resulted in axon retraction accompanied by an increase in actin barbed ends and a decrease in net filament labeling. All changes were significantly reduced by either Rho kinase (ROCK) or LIMK inhibition, using Y27632 or BMS-5, respectively. Cytochalasin D also reduced retraction and stabilized filaments in isolated rod cells. CONCLUSIONS. These results indicate that actin depolymerization via activation of RhoA downstream kinases and cofilin contributes to axon retraction. Preventing depolymerization, in addition to actomyosin contraction, may stabilize ribbon synapses after trauma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2274-2285
Number of pages12
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume60
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

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Lim Kinases
Actin Depolymerizing Factors
Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells
Actins
Wounds and Injuries
Retina
Cell Separation
Presynaptic Terminals
Retinal Detachment
Synapses
Axons
Phosphorylation
Phalloidine
Cytochalasin D
Urodela
Actomyosin
rho-Associated Kinases
Retinal Perforations
Visual Pathways
Vision Disorders

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Keywords

  • Actin dynamics
  • LIMK
  • Retinal injury
  • Rhoa signaling
  • Rod photoreceptor

Cite this

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abstract = "PURPOSE. Retraction of the axon terminals of rod photoreceptors after retinal detachment breaks the first synapse in the visual pathway, resulting in visual impairment. Previous work showed that the mechanism of axonal retraction involves RhoA signaling and its downstream effector LIM Kinase (LIMK) activation. We examined the response of the downstream component cofilin, a direct binding protein of actin filaments, as well as the regulation by RhoA-LIMK-Cofilin signaling of actin assembly/disassembly, in the presynaptic ribbon terminal of injured rod cells. METHODS. Injury was produced by retinal detachment or rod cell isolation. Detached porcine retina was probed for levels and localization of phosphorylated cofilin with Western blots and confocal microscopy, whereas rod cell cultures of dissociated salamander retina were examined for filamentous actin assembly/disassembly with a barbed end assay and phalloidin staining. RESULTS. A detachment increased phosphorylation of cofilin in retinal explants; phosphorylation occurred in rod terminals in sections of detached retina. Isolation of rod cells resulted in axon retraction accompanied by an increase in actin barbed ends and a decrease in net filament labeling. All changes were significantly reduced by either Rho kinase (ROCK) or LIMK inhibition, using Y27632 or BMS-5, respectively. Cytochalasin D also reduced retraction and stabilized filaments in isolated rod cells. CONCLUSIONS. These results indicate that actin depolymerization via activation of RhoA downstream kinases and cofilin contributes to axon retraction. Preventing depolymerization, in addition to actomyosin contraction, may stabilize ribbon synapses after trauma.",
keywords = "Actin dynamics, LIMK, Retinal injury, Rhoa signaling, Rod photoreceptor",
author = "Weiwei Wang and Eva Halasz and Ellen Townes-Anderson",
year = "2019",
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T1 - Actin dynamics, regulated by RhoA-LIMK-cofilin signaling, mediates rod photoreceptor axonal retraction after retinal injury

AU - Wang, Weiwei

AU - Halasz, Eva

AU - Townes-Anderson, Ellen

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - PURPOSE. Retraction of the axon terminals of rod photoreceptors after retinal detachment breaks the first synapse in the visual pathway, resulting in visual impairment. Previous work showed that the mechanism of axonal retraction involves RhoA signaling and its downstream effector LIM Kinase (LIMK) activation. We examined the response of the downstream component cofilin, a direct binding protein of actin filaments, as well as the regulation by RhoA-LIMK-Cofilin signaling of actin assembly/disassembly, in the presynaptic ribbon terminal of injured rod cells. METHODS. Injury was produced by retinal detachment or rod cell isolation. Detached porcine retina was probed for levels and localization of phosphorylated cofilin with Western blots and confocal microscopy, whereas rod cell cultures of dissociated salamander retina were examined for filamentous actin assembly/disassembly with a barbed end assay and phalloidin staining. RESULTS. A detachment increased phosphorylation of cofilin in retinal explants; phosphorylation occurred in rod terminals in sections of detached retina. Isolation of rod cells resulted in axon retraction accompanied by an increase in actin barbed ends and a decrease in net filament labeling. All changes were significantly reduced by either Rho kinase (ROCK) or LIMK inhibition, using Y27632 or BMS-5, respectively. Cytochalasin D also reduced retraction and stabilized filaments in isolated rod cells. CONCLUSIONS. These results indicate that actin depolymerization via activation of RhoA downstream kinases and cofilin contributes to axon retraction. Preventing depolymerization, in addition to actomyosin contraction, may stabilize ribbon synapses after trauma.

AB - PURPOSE. Retraction of the axon terminals of rod photoreceptors after retinal detachment breaks the first synapse in the visual pathway, resulting in visual impairment. Previous work showed that the mechanism of axonal retraction involves RhoA signaling and its downstream effector LIM Kinase (LIMK) activation. We examined the response of the downstream component cofilin, a direct binding protein of actin filaments, as well as the regulation by RhoA-LIMK-Cofilin signaling of actin assembly/disassembly, in the presynaptic ribbon terminal of injured rod cells. METHODS. Injury was produced by retinal detachment or rod cell isolation. Detached porcine retina was probed for levels and localization of phosphorylated cofilin with Western blots and confocal microscopy, whereas rod cell cultures of dissociated salamander retina were examined for filamentous actin assembly/disassembly with a barbed end assay and phalloidin staining. RESULTS. A detachment increased phosphorylation of cofilin in retinal explants; phosphorylation occurred in rod terminals in sections of detached retina. Isolation of rod cells resulted in axon retraction accompanied by an increase in actin barbed ends and a decrease in net filament labeling. All changes were significantly reduced by either Rho kinase (ROCK) or LIMK inhibition, using Y27632 or BMS-5, respectively. Cytochalasin D also reduced retraction and stabilized filaments in isolated rod cells. CONCLUSIONS. These results indicate that actin depolymerization via activation of RhoA downstream kinases and cofilin contributes to axon retraction. Preventing depolymerization, in addition to actomyosin contraction, may stabilize ribbon synapses after trauma.

KW - Actin dynamics

KW - LIMK

KW - Retinal injury

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