Activation of 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in Human Lung Microsomes by Cytochromes P450, Lipoxygenase, and Hydroperoxides

Theresa J. Smith, Gary D. Stoner, Chung S. Yang

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Abstract

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a potent tobacco-specific carcinogen, has been demonstrated to induce lung tumors in animals and is suspected to be a human carcinogen. Cytochromes P450 are the major enzymes responsible for the activation of NNK in microsomes from the lung and liver of rat and mouse, as well as human liver. The present study investigated the enzymes responsible for the metabolic activation of NNK in human lung microsomes. In the presence of a NADPH-generating system, the formation of keto aldehyde and keto alcohol (±-hydroxylation products, measured together), keto acid, hydroxy acid, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol was observed in human lung microsomes. Carbon monoxide (90%) decreased the rate of NNK oxidation by 5–49%, depending on the human lung microsomal samples analyzed. Coumarin decreased the oxidation of NNK by 9–34%, and an antibody against human P450 2A6 decreased the metabolism of NNK by 8–37%, suggesting the involvement of P450 2A6 in NNK oxidation. a-Napthoflavone inhibited NNK oxidation by 6–26%, possibly due to the inhibition of P450 1A1. P450 lAl-expressed microsomes catalyzed the formation of keto aldehyde and keto alcohol, exhibiting Km values of 1400 um and 371 um, respectively. In the absence of NADPH, NNK metabolism resulted in the formation of keto acid, keto aldehyde, and keto alcohol, and the activities in different lung samples were decreased by indomethacin (100 um; cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or nordihy-droguaiaretic acid (100 um; lipoxygenase inhibitor) by 0–27% or 30–66%, respectively. The addition of arachidonic acid (10–100 um) increased the rate of the formation of keto aldehyde and keto alcohol approximately 2-fold but inhibited the formation of keto acid. Soybean lipoxygenase increased the rate of formation of keto aldehyde and keto alcohol in a concentration-dependent manner. The increased rate in NNK oxidation by arachidonic acid or lipoxygenase was inhibited completely by nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Catalase, thiourea, and conjugated linoleic acid decreased the rate of NNK oxidation by 47,20, and 45%, respectively. ferf-Butyl-hydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide, and hydrogen peroxide increased the rate of formation of keto aldehyde and keto alcohol by 210, 40, and 50%, respectively. The results suggest that P450 enzymes are only partially responsible for the activation of NNK in human lung microsomes, and P450 2A6 or a P450 2A6-related enzyme seems to be involved in the activation. Furthermore, lipoxygenase and lipid hydroperoxides may play important roles in the oxidation of NNK in human lung microsomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5566-5573
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Research
Volume55
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 1 1995

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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