Age-related macular degeneration: Review of pathogenesis

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Abstract

Age-related macular degeneration is a condition (a) characterized by accumulation of membranous debris on both sides of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) basement membrane. Clinical manifestations of drusen, atrophy of the RPE/choriocapillaris, RPE detachment, and choroidal new vessel (CNV) formation occur after age 50 years. A hypothetical pathogenic sequence of events consistent with known data is: 1) RPE dysfunction (e.g., precipitated by an inherited susceptibility and/or environmental exposure); 2) accumulation of intracellular material in the RPE (e.g., accumulation of normal substrate material that is not enzymatically degraded properly vs. abnormal substrate material); 3) abnormal accumulation of extracellular material (basal laminar and basal linear deposit); 4) change in Bruch's membrane composition (e.g., increased lipid deposition and protein crosslinking); 5) change in Bruch's membrane permeability to nutrients (e.g., impaired diffusion of water soluble plasma constituents across Bruch's membrane); and 6) response of the RPE to metabolic distress (i.e., atrophy vs. CNV growth). Histopathological and clinical studies indicate that areas of choroidal ischemia often are seen near CNVs in AMD patients. In response to decreased oxygen delivery/metabolic 'distress', the RPE may elaborate substances leading to CNV growth. Perhaps RPE atrophy, followed by choriocapillaris and photoreceptor atrophy, is a response to decreased nutrients/increasing metabolic abnormalities in areas of excessive accumulation of extracellular debris. Unanswered questions regarding AMD include: 1) is AMD an ocular manifestation of a systemic disease or purely an ocular disease?; 2) what determines whether CNVs vs. atrophy of the RPE- choriocapillaris-photoreceptors develops?; and 3) what induces the maturation of CNVs into an inactive scar, and what limits the growth of most CNVs to the area centralis?.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-206
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume8
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology

Keywords

  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Aging
  • Atrophy
  • Bruch's membrane
  • Choroid
  • Drusen
  • Growth factor
  • Neovascularization
  • RPE

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