Aggregation kinetics of diesel soot nanoparticles in artificial and human sweat solutions: Effects of sweat constituents, pH, and temperature

Jing Li, Xingjian Yang, Zhen Zhang, Harry Xiao, Weimin Sun, Weilin Huang, Yongtao Li, Chengyu Chen, Yan Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Soot nanoparticles (SNPs) are airborne contaminants that could potentially penetrate skin, but their aggregation after contact with sweat may lower their health risks. This study investigated SNP aggregation kinetics in 4 artificial sweat standards and 21 human sweat samples. Effects of sweat inorganic (NaCl, Na2HPO4, and NaH2PO4) and organic (L-histidine, lactic acid, and urea) constituents, pH, temperature, and concentrations were examined. Results showed that SNP aggregation rates in 4 standards followed American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) > British Standard (EN) > International Standard Organization (ISO) pH 5.5 > ISO pH 8.0, and could be described by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The aggregation rates increased with concentrations of SNPs, inorganic salts, L-histidine, and lactic acid, decreased with increasing pH and concentration of urea, and were weakly influenced by temperature. Systematic characterizations revealed SNP adsorption for organic sweat constituents. SNPs aggregated rapidly to ∼1000 nm in AATCC, but remained stable in ISO pH 8.0 and > 14/21 human sweat fluids over 20 min. The SNP aggregation rates correlated negatively with pH (r = -0.531*) and |ζ potential| (r = -0.464*) of human sweat samples. Sweat evaporation could promote aggregation of SNPs, hence lowering their potential harm via dermal exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number123614
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume403
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 5 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Keywords

  • Colloidal stability
  • Dermal exposure
  • Nanoscale toxic contaminant
  • SNPs
  • Sweat standard

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