Ambient effect on the Curie temperatures and magnetic domains in metallic two-dimensional magnets

Zhiyin Tu, Ti Xie, Yeonghun Lee, Jinling Zhou, Alemayehu S. Admasu, Yu Gong, Nagarajan Valanoor, John Cumings, Sang Wook Cheong, Ichiro Takeuchi, Kyeongjae Cho, Cheng Gong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The emergent magnetic two-dimensional (2D) materials provide ideal solid-state platforms for a broad range of applications including miniaturized spintronics, nonreciprocal optics, and magnetoelectric sensors. Owing to the general environmental sensitivity of 2D magnets, the understanding of ambient effects on 2D magnetism is critical. Apparently, the nature of itinerant ferromagnetism potentially makes metallic 2D magnets insensitive to environmental disturbance. Nevertheless, our systematic study showed that the Curie temperature of metallic 2D Fe3GeTe2 decreases dramatically in the air but thick Fe3GeTe2 exhibits self-protection. Remarkably, we found the air exposure effectively promotes the formation of multiple magnetic domains in 2D Fe3GeTe2, but not in bulk Fe3GeTe2. Our first-principles calculations support the scenario that substrate-induced roughness and tellurium vacancies boost the interaction of 2D Fe3GeTe2 with the air. Our elucidation of the thickness-dependent air-catalyzed evolution of Curie temperatures and magnetic domains in 2D magnets provides critical insights for chemically decorating and manipulating 2D magnets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number62
Journalnpj 2D Materials and Applications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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