Objectives: Multiple endovascular techniques have been described for the treatment of persistent type II endoleaks (pT2ELs) causing aneurysm sac growth following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In the event of a failed endovascular procedure and a pT2EL, a consensus regarding further treatment is lacking, and the literature suggests repeated endovascular attempts are rarely successful. Herein, we propose an algorithm for definitive management of pT2ELs with persistent sac growth following EVAR. Methods: A retrospective review of 29 patients who underwent treatment of persistent sac growth in the setting of pT2ELs was performed. Intervention methods were determined at the discretion of the operating surgeon. Aneurysmal sac enlargement was defined as a diameter increase > 5 mm, and persistent endoleak was defined as lasting greater than 6 months. Results: From 2000 to 2015, 917 EVAR procedures were performed at our institution. Isolated pT2ELs with sac enlargement were identified in 29 patients. Twenty-five patients underwent direct translumbar sac puncture and coiling and/or Onyx (Onyx, Plymouth, Minnesota) embolization of the culprit vessels. Thirteen (52%) of 25 patients had pT2EL after first endovascular intervention, and 10 (40%) of 25 patients failed 2 endovascular treatments. Of those 10, 7 displayed persistent aneurysmal sac growth and underwent a third embolization procedure. Type II endoleaks persisted in 6 patients; 3 patients were subsequently treated with laparotomy, ligation of lumbar vessels, sac exploration, and sac plication around the endograft. Technical success for this technique was 100%. During a mean follow-up of 38.4 months, no recurrent T2ELs, stent graft migration, and/or disjunction were observed. Conclusions: We propose a new algorithm for the management of pT2ELs. If 2 endovascular procedures fail to control of the endoleak, repeat endovascular attempts are not recommended. Endovascular failure should be followed by laparotomy with surgical ligation of culprit feeding vessels followed by sac exploration and plication of the sac, and endoaneurysmorrhaphy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- abdominal aortic aneurysm
- endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
- type 2 endoleak