Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies indicates that chronic inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in neoplastic development. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress activities, and differential regulation of Nrf2-mediated genes by tea Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZ) and licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis (LE) extracts. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress activities of hexane/ethanol extracts of CZ and LE were investigated using in vitro and in vivo approaches, including quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and microarray. Additionally, the role of the transcriptional factor Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid-related factor 2) signaling pathways was examined. Our results show that CZ and LE extracts exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the mRNA and protein expression levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. CZ and LE also significantly suppressed the NO production of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, CZ and LE suppressed the NF-κB luciferase activity in human HT-29 colon cancer cells. Both extracts also showed strong Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/Phase II detoxifying enzymes induction. CZ and LE induced NQO1, Nrf2, and UGT and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity in human hepatoma HepG2 C8 cells. Using Nrf2 knockout [Nrf2 (-/-)] and Nrf2 wild-type (+/+) mice, LE and CZ showed Nrf2-dependent transactivation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant and phase II detoxifying genes. In summary, CZ and LE possess strong inhibitory effects against NF-κB-mediated inflammatory as well as strong activation of the Nrf2-ARE-anti-oxidative stress signaling pathways, which would contribute to their overall health promoting pharmacological effects against diseases including cancer.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Anti-oxidative stress
- Phase II drug metabolizing/detoxifying enzymes