Scope: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer and is highly metastatic. Metastasis is considered to be the major cause of death in cancer patients. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aims of this study were to evaluate the anti-invasion activity of 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol, two compounds found in ginger, on hepatoma cells. Methods and results: The migratory and invasive abilities of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated HepG2 and PMA-untreated Hep3B cells were both reduced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol. Upon incubation of PMA-treated HepG2 cells and PMA-untreated Hep3B cells with 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity decreased, whereas the expression of tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase protein (TIMP)-1 increased in both cell types. Additionally, urokinase-type plasminogen activator activity was dose-dependently decreased in Hep3B cells after incubation with 6-shogaol for 24 h. Analysis with semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that the regulation of MMP-9 by 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol and the regulation of TIMP-1 by 6-shogaol in Hep3B cells may on the transcriptional level. Conclusions: These results suggest that 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol might both exert anti-invasive activity against hepatoma cells through regulation of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and that 6-shogaol could further regulate urokinase-type plasminogen activity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Matrix metalloproteinases
- Tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase