Antihypertensive medication use among recruits for the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly (TONE)

Mark A. Espeland, Shiriki Kumanyika, John Kostis, Jenifer Algire, William B. Applegate, Walter Ettinger, Paul K. Whelton, Judy Bahnson

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16 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: To examine the distribution and correlates of the classes of antihypertensive medications taken by persons aged 60 to 80. DESIGN: Cross- sectional screening. SETTING: Four academic medical centers in the southern and eastern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Volunteers (N = 2601) entering a clinical trial testing the value of nonpharmacologic approaches to control blood pressure who were either taking one or two (single or combined) medications for the treatment of hypertension and expressed willingness to be withdrawn from these medications according to a standardized protocol MEASUREMENTS: Medication use, blood pressure, and data from self-administered questionnaires collected during standardized clinic visits. RESULTS: Calcium channel blockers (23.9%) were the most frequent single agent antihypertensive medications used by cohort members, followed by diuretics (17.9%) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (17.5%). The most common combination agents were composed of diuretics with either calcium channel blockers (5.4%), ACE inhibitors (4.0%), or β-blockers (3.7%). Women were twice as likely to be taking diuretics, and less likely to be taking ACE inhibitors and β-blockers, than men. Blacks were more likely to be taking diuretics and calcium channel blockers, and less likely to be taking β- blockers and ACE inhibitors, than others. These relationships could not be attributed to differences in geographical area, other demographic factors, age, or medical history. CONCLUSIONS: These usage patterns appear to mirror those in the population of the United States as a whole, which has trended toward greater usage of calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors with declining use of diuretics. The distribution of antihypertensive medications among olderhypertensives is markedly different between women and men and between black Americans and others.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1183-1189
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1996

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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