Antioxidant activity and effective compounds of immature calamondin peel

Ming Wen Yu, Shyi Neng Lou, E. Mean Chiu, Chi-Tang Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids of mature and immature calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) peel were investigated. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, and superoxide scavenging effect. 3′,5′-Di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin, naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are the five major flavonoids found in hot water extract with the levels of 6888 ± 522, 2333 ± 157, 1350 ± 94, 165 ± 13, and 8 ± 4 mg/100 g dry basis, respectively. The contents of nobiletin and tangeretin increased after ripening. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel was fractionated using a semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction VI showed the highest ORAC value (28.02 ± 2.73 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g fraction) and two compounds, naringin and hesperidin, were identified as the major active components attributed to the antioxidant activity. Fraction V contained 3′,5′-di-C-β- glucopyranosylphloretin, which revealed low ORAC value with 7.43 mmol TE/g fraction. However, it might also contribute to antioxidant activity in immature calamondin peel due to its greatest quantity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1130-1135
Number of pages6
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume136
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2013

Fingerprint

Citrus madurensis
Hesperidin
Reactive Oxygen Species
Antioxidants
antioxidant activity
immatures
oxygen radical absorbance capacity
Flavonoids
Water
hesperidin
naringin
Citrus
Scavenging
extracts
Superoxides
flavonoids
after-ripening
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
water
superoxide anion

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Food Science

Keywords

  • 3′,5′-Di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Hesperidin
  • Immature calamondin
  • Naringin
  • Peel

Cite this

Yu, Ming Wen ; Lou, Shyi Neng ; Chiu, E. Mean ; Ho, Chi-Tang. / Antioxidant activity and effective compounds of immature calamondin peel. In: Food Chemistry. 2013 ; Vol. 136, No. 3-4. pp. 1130-1135.
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Antioxidant activity and effective compounds of immature calamondin peel. / Yu, Ming Wen; Lou, Shyi Neng; Chiu, E. Mean; Ho, Chi-Tang.

In: Food Chemistry, Vol. 136, No. 3-4, 15.02.2013, p. 1130-1135.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids of mature and immature calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) peel were investigated. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, and superoxide scavenging effect. 3′,5′-Di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin, naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are the five major flavonoids found in hot water extract with the levels of 6888 ± 522, 2333 ± 157, 1350 ± 94, 165 ± 13, and 8 ± 4 mg/100 g dry basis, respectively. The contents of nobiletin and tangeretin increased after ripening. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel was fractionated using a semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction VI showed the highest ORAC value (28.02 ± 2.73 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g fraction) and two compounds, naringin and hesperidin, were identified as the major active components attributed to the antioxidant activity. Fraction V contained 3′,5′-di-C-β- glucopyranosylphloretin, which revealed low ORAC value with 7.43 mmol TE/g fraction. However, it might also contribute to antioxidant activity in immature calamondin peel due to its greatest quantity.

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