Apoplectic leiomyomas: does ethnicity make a difference? a clinicopathologic study

Bradley M. Turner, Stewart F. Cramer, Debra S. Heller, Fattaneh A. Tavassoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Apoplectic leiomyomas—benign uterine leiomyomas with morphologic changes including hemorrhage, hypercellularity, mitotic activity, nuclear atypia, and even necrosis—can be difficult to distinguish from uterine leiomyosarcomas. Apoplectic leiomyomas have been associated with hormonal therapy; however, the relationship between apoplectic leiomyomas, hormones, and ethnicity has not received much attention in the literature. We evaluated the relationship of hormonal therapy and ethnicity in 869 women with uterine leiomyomas, 136 of which qualified as apoplectic leiomyomas. Apoplectic leiomyomas were observed in 23.3% (49/210) of women exposed to hormonal therapy compared to 13.2% (87/659) of women not exposed to hormonal therapy (p < 0.0001). Women taking ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone (Lo-Estrin), leuprolide, and medroxyprogesterone were significantly more likely to have apoplectic leiomyomas compared to women taking other hormonal therapies. Apoplectic leiomyomas were observed in 28.9% (44/152) of African-American women compared to 12.4% (79/639) of Caucasian women (p < 0.0001), and this difference remained statistically significant regardless of hormone use. Apoplectic leiomyomas were observed in 22.1% (77/349) of women ≤ 45 years of age compared to 11.3% (59/520) of women > 45 years of age (p < 0.0001), and this difference remained statistically significant regardless of hormone use.This is the largest study to date examining apoplectic leiomyomas in women on known hormonal therapy compared to women with uterine leiomyomas, but not on hormonal therapy. Information about hormonal therapy, ethnicity, and age can be helpful in the diagnostic interpretation of apoplectic leiomyoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)645-654
Number of pages10
JournalVirchows Archiv
Volume480
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Keywords

  • Age
  • Apoplectic
  • BMI
  • Ethnicity
  • Hormonal
  • Leiomyoma
  • Smoking

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