The purpose of this meta-analysis was to clarify the current understanding of the relationship between counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and withdrawal. First, we articulate theoretical and conceptual reasons for the confusion on important issues, such as their conceptualization, labeling, and measurement. Second, we conduct a meta-analysis between current CWB and withdrawal measures. We found that, as measured, CWB and withdrawal are strongly related and have patterns of nomological relationships with common correlates that are nearly identical. The relationship between organizational-target CWB and withdrawal is particularly strong. The results suggest that withdrawal may be best represented as a facet in the hierarchical model of CWB, perhaps even as a facet of organizational-target CWB. We also discuss important avenues and needs for future research.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Strategy and Management
- construct validity
- counterproductive work behavior
- withdrawal behavior