Are germinal inclusion cysts markers of ovulation?

Debra S. Heller, Patricia Murphy, Carolyn Westhoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Germinal inclusion cysts (GICs) of the ovary are possible precursor lesions for epithelial ovarian cancer. These cysts have been postulated to form as stigmata of ovulation. It is known that oral contraceptives, breastfeeding, and pregnancy, which decrease lifetime ovulations, confer protection against epithelial ovarian cancer. This study was undertaken to determine if ovarian density of epithelial inclusion cysts corresponds to a woman's frequency of ovulation. One hundred two cases of women undergoing incidental oophorectomy at the time of surgery for benign gynecological conditions were interviewed for information relating to ovulation. Review of multiple sections of ovarian tissue was performed to count numbers of GICs. There was a modest correlation between the average number of germinal inclusion cysts and ovulatory age (Spearman's rho = 0.2, P = 0.06). There were fewer GICs in current smokers and ever-users of oral contraceptives; however these associations were not significant (P > 0.1). This study showed increased numbers of GICs in women of greater ovulatory age, and those who were not current smokers or ever used oral contraceptives. This provides some evidence that GICs may be caused by ovulation. The small number of subjects limited our ability to evaluate associations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)496-499
Number of pages4
JournalGynecologic Oncology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Are germinal inclusion cysts markers of ovulation?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this