'Articulating the unsaid' via and-prefaced formulations of others' talk

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This article provides a conversation analytic description of a previously unstudied conversational action: 'articulating the unsaid' via and-prefaced formulations of other people's talk. Contributing to the extant research on formulations and on interactional functions of discourse markers, the article shows that and-prefaced formulations accomplish a distinct conversational action that has the following features: these formulations are assertions about the addressee's domain of knowledge that perform a repair operation in the form of a request for confirmation; they articulate a 'missing' element of the addressee's preceding talk (which is, typically, an extended informing turn); what is being formulated is claimably inferable from the prior talk; moreover, such formulations extend the addressee's course of action on his/her behalf. The article describes compositional and sequential features of and-prefaced formulations and how they shape interactional trajectories of in-progress courses of action.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5-32
Number of pages28
JournalDiscourse Studies
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2010


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology
  • Communication
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Anthropology
  • Linguistics and Language


  • Affiliation
  • Confirmation requests
  • Conversation analysis
  • Discourse markers
  • Formulations
  • Repair

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