Purpose: Quantity and quality of early at-home reading shape literacy out-comes. At-home reading frequency is a common outcome measure in interven-tions. This single measure may not fully capture the quality of early reading interactions, such as parent and child references to print, an important contribu-tor to language and literacy outcomes. This study aims to evaluate if and how reported reading frequency and duration are associated with parent and child print referencing, controlling for perceived parenting self-efficacy, developmental knowledge, and child sex. Method: This study is a secondary analysis of baseline data from a treatment study with parents (N = 30) and children (1;1–2;3 [years;months]) from under-resourced households. Parents reported weekly reading episode frequency and duration (in minutes). We coded parent–child book-sharing interactions to quan-tify use of print references. Results: Negative binomial regression modeling suggested that parents who reported more weekly reading episodes tended to use more print references during interactions. However, reported reading time in minutes was not significantly associated with parents’ print referencing. Parents’ print references were also associated with perceived self-efficacy, developmental knowledge, and child sex. In our sample, parents used more print references with male children. Neither reading frequency nor reading time was associated with increased print referencing from children. Conclusions: Duration of reading did not positively predict children’s use of print references. However, weekly reading frequency positively predicted par-ents’ use of print references. Parent perceived self-efficacy and knowledge may predict early interaction quality similarly to quantity of reading.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Linguistics and Language
- Speech and Hearing