Background: Treatment guidelines for pneumonia recommend beta-lactam antibiotic-based therapy. Although reported penicillin allergy is common, more than 90% of patients with reported penicillin allergy are not allergic. Objective: We evaluated the association of a documented penicillin and/or cephalosporin (P/C) allergy to antibiotic use for the treatment of inpatient pneumonia. Methods: This was a national cross-sectional study conducted among Vizient, Inc., network hospitals that voluntarily contributed data. Among hospitalized patients with pneumonia, we examined the relation of a documented P/C allergy in the electronic health record to prevalence of first-line beta-lactam antibiotic administration and alternative antibiotics using multivariable log-binomial regression with generalized estimating equations. Results: Of 2,276 inpatients receiving antibiotics for pneumonia at 95 U.S. hospitals, 450 (20%) had a documented P/C allergy. Compared with pneumonia patients without a documented P/C allergy, patients with a documented P/C allergy had reduced prevalence of first-line beta-lactam antibiotic use (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.69-0.89]). Patients with high-risk P/C reactions (n = 91) had even lower prevalence of first-line beta-lactam antibiotic use (aPR 0.47; 95% CI 0.35-0.64). Alternative antibiotics associated with a higher use in pneumonia patients with a documented P/C allergy included carbapenems (aPR 1.61; 95% CI 1.22-2.13) and fluoroquinolones (aPR 1.52; 95% CI 1.21-1.91). Conclusions: Inpatients with documented P/C allergy and pneumonia were less likely to receive recommended beta-lactams and more likely to receive carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Inpatient allergy assessment may improve optimal antibiotic therapy for the 20% of inpatients with pneumonia and a documented P/C allergy.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice|
|State||Published - Aug 2021|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- EHR data