Associations between tooth loss, with or without dental prostheses, and malnutrition risk in older adults: A systematic review

Rena Zelig, Riva Touger-Decker, Mei Chung, Laura Byham-Gray

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

A systematic review was conducted to investigate the associations between missing teeth, teeth replaced with dental prostheses, and malnutrition risk, as determined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), among community-dwelling older adults. A comprehensive search strategy was designed to identify studies published between 2000 and 2014 that met inclusion criteria. Searches were conducted in Medline, CINAHL, and Cochrane Libraries. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses guidelines were followed and risk-of-bias analyses were performed. Study data were abstracted and synthesized in narrative and summary tables. Of the 8 studies that met inclusion criteria, 5 found significant associations between MNA score and tooth loss. Those with fewer teeth/limited occlusion had lower MNA scores, hence were at greater risk for malnutrition than those with a greater number of teeth and/or more occluding teeth pairs. Provision of dentures to older adults was associated with significant increases in MNA scores. The studies reviewed support associations between tooth loss, replacement with prostheses, and malnutrition risk; individuals with more missing teeth and limited occlusion were at increased risk of malnutrition. Additional high-quality research seems warranted to substantiate a causal relationship between dental and nutritional status. Inadequate oral health and poor nutritional status are associated with increased mortality risk in older adults. Efforts to optimize oral health and nutritional status of older adults are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)232-247
Number of pages16
JournalTopics in Clinical Nutrition
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Keywords

  • Dental prosthesis
  • Dentures
  • Edentulism
  • Geriatrics
  • Malnutrition
  • Mini nutritional assessment (MNA)
  • Nutritional status
  • Systematic review
  • Tooth loss

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