Basal ganglia accumulation and motor assessment following manganese chloride exposure in the C57BL/6 mouse

Celia A. Dodd, Daniel L. Ward, Bradley G. Klein

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41 Scopus citations


Equivocal clinical evidence for involvement of manganese in development of Parkinson's disease necessitates experimental studies on this issue. The aged, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine-treated C57BL/6 mouse is one of the most common models for Parkinson's disease. However, there is little information on brain bioaccumulation of manganese, and little or no information on clinical/behavioral manifestations of manganese neurotoxicity, in this strain. Male C57BL/6 retired breeder mice were given a single subcutaneous injection of either 0, 50, or 100 mg/kg of MnCl2 (single-dose regimen) or three injections of either of these doses over 7 days (multiple-dose regimen). Behavioral assessment was performed 24 h after final injection, followed by sacrifice, and body weight was recorded each day. There was a 105% increase in striatal manganese concentration 1 day after a single 100 mg/kg injection, and 421% and 647% increases, respectively, 1 day after multiple doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg of MnCl2. One day after a single injection, there were respective 30.9% and 38.9% decreases in horizontal movement (grid crossing) for the 50 and 100 mg/kg doses and a 43.2% decrease for the multiple dose of 100 mg/kg. There was no significant main effect of dose level on rearing, swimming, grip strength, or grip fatigue. Unlike previous work with the C57BL/6 strain using smaller intraperitoneal doses, this study established dosing regimens that produced significant increases in basal ganglia manganese concentration reminiscent of brain increases in the CD-1 mouse following subcutaneous doses close to our lowest. A decrease in locomotor behavior, significant but not severe in this study, has been reported following manganese exposure in other mouse strains. These data, particularly the significant increase in basal ganglia manganese concentration, provide guidance for designing studies of the potential role of manganese in Parkinson's disease using the most common animal model for the disorder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)389-397
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Toxicology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2005
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology


  • Basal Ganglia
  • C57BL/6 Mouse
  • Manganese Neurotoxicity
  • Motor Behavior
  • Parkinson's Disease

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