Benchtop microreactor built for diagnostic deposition of CU3BIS3 for use in photovoltaic devices

Joshua A. Epstein, Richard J. Castellano, Jerry Shan, Dunbar Birnie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Copper bismuth sulfide (CBS) is a material that could be used in future solar panels as a more cost effective replacement for silicon or other thin films. Multiple low-temperature solvothermal methods to make this material have been discovered. Efforts to utilize these syntheses in a custom-built benchtop reactor meant to deposit the material on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass have been under way for some time. Recently, a second generation reactor design has been completed that solves many problems associated with our first reactor. The design was intended to promote uniform liquid flow across the FTO glass. This reactor was also built with a temperature gradient transverse to the liquid flow so that the optimal temperature for the deposition of CBS could be discovered. The designing and fabrication of this reactor will be covered, as well as preliminary results from our deposition experiments with Cu3 BiS3.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)501-513
Number of pages13
JournalComputational Thermal Sciences
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2015


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Computational Mathematics


  • Chemical reactor design
  • Controlled thermal gradient

Cite this