In this study, the authors related blood lead concentrations to Apgar scores, birth weight, gestational age, small-for-gestational age, and hypertension in pregnancy (HIP)/toxemia. Data and blood were collected 4 times during pregnancy from 705 women, aged 12–34 yr. Blood lead concentrations, measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, were related to reproductive outcomes, abstracted from medical records. Average blood lead concentrations were 1.2 μg/dl (standard error = ± 0.03). Maternal blood lead concentrations were related significantly to HIP/toxemia—before and after adjusting for age, calcium intake, and race/ethnicity (p <.03). Longitudinal regression analyses revealed that blood lead concentrations in women with HIP/toxemia changed by 0.02 μg/dl for every 0.01 μg/dl change in women without HIP/toxemia. Maternal blood lead concentration and its change were not significantly associated with other reproductive outcomes. Low levels of maternal blood lead concentrations were significantly associated with HIP/toxemia.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Environmental Science(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Blood pressure
- Hypertension in pregnancy