In order to know the genetic differences of de- and redifferentiation capacities, seven Brassica species (B. campestris, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. hirta, B. carinata, B. juncea and B. napus) were cultured in vitro, and their response to the medium supplemented with various combinations of auxin and cytokinin hormones was compared. Important factors for callus initiation were shown to be auxin and species. Calli were induced most frequently in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), whereas α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) induced preferentially roots at a concentration of 2 to 5 mg/l. Callus-, root- and shoot-forming capacities from explanted cotyledon tissues were significantly different among the seven Brassica species. Calli derived from cotyledons and hypocotyls of seven species were transferred to MS media with 20g/l sucrose, 0 to 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0 to 4 mg/l kinetin to compare their regeneration capacities. Among the seven species tested, B. napus (2n=4x=38, genome AACC) had the highest shoot forming capacity (20.0%). Other amphiploid species, B. carinata (2n=4x=34, BBCC) and B. juncea (2n=4x=36, AABB) formed shoots at low frequencies (2.8% and 1.2%, respectively). A diploid species, B. oleracea (2n=2x 18, CC) also showed high shoot formation (10.2% on average). This result suggests that the gene(s) controlling shoot formation may be localized in the C genome. Differences were also found among varieties and cultivars within a species. One of the cultivars, Siberian kale (B. oleracea var. acephala) gave about 50% shoot formation. This kale was shown cytologically to be an autotetraploid (2n=4x=36, CCCC), thus probably possessing a double set of the shoot-forming gene(s).
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