We investigated the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on growth of tumors and metastases in the 4T1 mammary tumor model and found that CR, compared with normal diet, reduced the growth of mammary tumors and metastases and the total number of metastases that originated both spontaneously from the primary tumor and also experimentally from i.v. injection of the tumor cells. CR also decreased proliferation and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis in tumors. CR reduced levels of insulin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1, insulinlike growth factor binding protein 3 and increased adiponectin in tumors. We also demonstrated that tumors from CR mice possessed lower levels of transforming growth factor-β, lower intratumor deposition of collagen IVand reduced invasiveness due to a decrease in tumor secretion of active matrix metalloproteinase 9. Our results suggest that CR-induced metabolic and signaling changes affect the stroma and the tumor cells resulting in a microenvironment that prevents proliferation of breast tumors and their metastases.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research