Background. Azole-resistant aspergillosis in high-risk patients with hematological malignancy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a cause of concern. Methods. We examined changes over time in triazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 290 sequential Aspergillus isolates recovered from respiratory sources during 1999-2002 (before introduction of the Aspergillus-potent triazoles voriconazole and posaconazole) and 2003-2015 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. We also tested for polymorphisms in ergosterol biosynthetic genes (cyp51A, erg3C, erg1) in the 37 Aspergillus fumigatus isolates isolated from both periods that had non-wild-type (WT) MICs. For the 107 patients with hematologic cancer and/or HSCT with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, we correlated in vitro susceptibility with 42-day mortality. Results. Non-WT MICs were found in 37 (13%) isolates and was only low level (MIC <8 mg/L) in all isolates. Higher-triazole MICs were more frequent in the second period and were Aspergillus-species specific, and only encountered in A. fumigatus. No polymorphisms in cyp51A, erg3C, erg1 genes were identified. There was no correlation between in vitro MICs with 42-day mortality in patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, irrespective of antifungal treatment. Asian race (odds ratio [OR], 20.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-173.5; P =.005) and azole exposure in the prior 3 months (OR, 9.6; 95% CI, 1.9-48.5; P =.006) were associated with azole resistance. Conclusions. Non-WT azole MICs in Aspergillus are increasing and this is associated with prior azole exposure in patients with hematologic cancer or HSCT. However, no correlation of MIC with outcome of aspergillosis was found in our patient cohort.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases
- in vitro.