Childhood Car Access: Long-term Consequences for Education, Employment, and Earnings

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4 Scopus citations


Do children suffer long-term consequences when they grow up without a car? To answer that question, this article uses propensity score matching and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Young adults who were carless as children completed less education, worked for pay less often, experienced more unemployment, and earned less than their matched peers with consistent car access. The matching process allows me to compare like to like; it accounts for differences in income, wealth, residential location, family composition, and race. These results suggest that transportation disadvantage contributes to the intergenerational transmission of economic standing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-46
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Planning Education and Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Development
  • Urban Studies


  • adolescence
  • automobile access
  • inequality
  • transition to adulthood
  • transportation disadvantage


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