Do children suffer long-term consequences when they grow up without a car? To answer that question, this article uses propensity score matching and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Young adults who were carless as children completed less education, worked for pay less often, experienced more unemployment, and earned less than their matched peers with consistent car access. The matching process allows me to compare like to like; it accounts for differences in income, wealth, residential location, family composition, and race. These results suggest that transportation disadvantage contributes to the intergenerational transmission of economic standing.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Urban Studies
- automobile access
- transition to adulthood
- transportation disadvantage