Children's Cognitive Ability From 4 to 9 Years Old as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Environmental Risk, and Maternal Verbal Intelligence

David S. Bennett, Margaret Bendersky, Michael Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at ages 4, 6, and 9 years. Neonatal medical risk and other prenatal exposures (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) were also examined for their unique effects on child IQ. Mixed models analysis indicated that prenatal cocaine exposure interacted with gender, as cocaine-exposed boys had lower composite IQ scores. Age at assessment did not moderate this relation, indicating that cocaine-exposed boys had lower IQs across this age period. A stimulating home environment and high maternal verbal IQ also predicted higher composite IQ scores. Cocaine-exposed boys had lower scores on the Abstract/Visual Reasoning subscale, with trends for lower scores on the Short-Term Memory and Verbal Reasoning subscales, as exposure effects were observed across domains. The findings indicate that cocaine exposure continues to place children at risk for mild cognitive deficits into preadolescence. Possible mechanisms for the Exposure × Gender interaction are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)919-928
Number of pages10
JournalDevelopmental psychology
Volume44
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2008

Fingerprint

Maternal Exposure
Aptitude
Environmental Exposure
cognitive ability
Intelligence
Cocaine
intelligence
gender
intelligence test
model analysis
moderator
deficit
alcohol
Intelligence Tests
Cannabis
trend
interaction
Short-Term Memory
Tobacco Products
Alcohols

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Demography
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

Keywords

  • environmental risk
  • gender differences
  • intelligence
  • prenatal cocaine exposure

Cite this

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Children's Cognitive Ability From 4 to 9 Years Old as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Environmental Risk, and Maternal Verbal Intelligence. / Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael.

In: Developmental psychology, Vol. 44, No. 4, 01.07.2008, p. 919-928.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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