Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, as Proteasome Inhibitors, Upregulate the Expression and Activity of Organic Anion Transporter 3

Zhengxuan Liang, Guofeng You

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), at the basolateral membrane of kidney proximal tubule cells, facilitates the elimination of numerous widely used drugs. Earlier investigation from our laboratory revealed that ubiquitin conjugation to OAT3 leads to OAT3 internalization from the cell surface, followed by degradation in the proteasome. In the current study, we examined the roles of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), two well-known anti-malarial drugs, in their action as proteasome inhibitors and their effects on OAT3 ubiquitination, expression, and function. We showed that in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, the ubiquitinated OAT3 was considerably enhanced, which correlated well with a decrease in 20S proteasome activity. Furthermore, in CQ- and HCQ-treated cells, OAT3 expression and OAT3-mediated transport of estrone sulfate, a prototypical substrate, were significantly increased. Such increases in OAT3 expression and transport activity were accompanied by an increase in the maximum transport velocity and a decrease in the degradation rate of the transporter. In conclusion, this study unveiled a novel role of CQ and HCQ in enhancing OAT3 expression and transport activity by preventing the degradation of ubiquitinated OAT3 in proteasomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1725
JournalPharmaceutics
Volume15
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmaceutical Science

Keywords

  • chloroquine
  • hydroxychloroquine
  • organic transporter 3
  • proteasome inhibition
  • regulation

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