Cingulate cortex: Diverging data from humans and monkeys

Michael W. Cole, Nick Yeung, Winrich A. Freiwald, Matthew Botvinick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


Cognitive neuroscience research relies, in part, on homologies between the brains of human and non-human primates. A quandary therefore arises when presumed anatomical homologues exhibit different functional properties. Such a situation has recently arisen in the case of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In humans, numerous studies suggest a role for ACC in detecting conflicts in information processing. Studies of macaque monkey ACC, in contrast, have failed to find conflict-related responses. We consider several interpretations of this discrepancy, including differences in research methodology and cross-species differences in functional neuroanatomy. New directions for future research are outlined, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing illusory cross-species differences from the true evolutionary differences that make our species unique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)566-574
Number of pages9
JournalTrends in Neurosciences
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)

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