Classification of jinjiang oysters Crassostrea rivularis (Gould, 1861) from China, based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis

Haiyan Wang, Ximing Guo, Guofan Zhang, Fusui Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The jinjiang oyster Crassostrea rivularis [Gould, 1861. Descriptions of shells collected in the North Pacific Exploring Expedition under Captains Ringgold and Rodgers. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8 (April), 33-40] is one of the most important and best-known oysters in China. Based on the color of its flesh, two forms of C. rivularis are recognized and referred to as the "white meat" and "red meat" oysters. The classification of white and red forms of this species has been a subject of confusion and debate in China. To clarify the taxonomic status of the two forms of C. rivularis, we collected and analyzed oysters from five locations along China's coast using both morphological characters and DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I, and the nuclear 28S rRNA genes. Oysters were classified as white or red forms according to their morphological characteristics and then subjected to DNA sequencing. Both morphological and DNA sequence data suggest that the red and white oysters are two separate species. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences obtained in this study and existing sequences of reference species show that the red oyster is the same species as C. ariakensis Wakiya [1929. Japanese food oysters. Jpn. J. Zool. 2, 359-367.], albeit the red oysters from north and south China are genetically distinctive. The white oyster is the same species as a newly described species from Hong Kong, C. hongkongensis Lam and Morton [2003. Mitochondrial DNA and identification of a new species of Crassostrea (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) cultured for centuries in the Pearl River Delta, Hong Kong, China. Aqua. 228, 1-13]. Although the name C. rivularis has seniority over C. ariakensis and C. hongkongensis, the original description of Ostrea rivularis by Gould [1861] does not fit shell characteristics of either the red or the white oysters. We propose that the name of C. rivularis Gould [1861] should be suspended, the red oyster should take the name C. ariakensis, and the white oyster should take the name C. hongkongensis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-155
Number of pages19
JournalAquaculture
Volume242
Issue number1-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 20 2004

Fingerprint

Crassostrea rivularis
oysters
phylogenetics
China
phylogeny
DNA
meat
shell
shell (molluscs)
mitochondrial DNA
nucleotide sequences
cytochrome
analysis
Ostreidae
new species
ribosomal RNA
Ostrea
Crassostrea
food
gene

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aquatic Science

Keywords

  • 16S rRNA
  • 28S rRNA
  • C. ariakensis
  • C. hongkongensis
  • Crassostrea rivularis
  • Cytochrome oxidase I
  • Taxonomy

Cite this

@article{055833cb992c453884345cc69182f9cd,
title = "Classification of jinjiang oysters Crassostrea rivularis (Gould, 1861) from China, based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis",
abstract = "The jinjiang oyster Crassostrea rivularis [Gould, 1861. Descriptions of shells collected in the North Pacific Exploring Expedition under Captains Ringgold and Rodgers. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8 (April), 33-40] is one of the most important and best-known oysters in China. Based on the color of its flesh, two forms of C. rivularis are recognized and referred to as the {"}white meat{"} and {"}red meat{"} oysters. The classification of white and red forms of this species has been a subject of confusion and debate in China. To clarify the taxonomic status of the two forms of C. rivularis, we collected and analyzed oysters from five locations along China's coast using both morphological characters and DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I, and the nuclear 28S rRNA genes. Oysters were classified as white or red forms according to their morphological characteristics and then subjected to DNA sequencing. Both morphological and DNA sequence data suggest that the red and white oysters are two separate species. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences obtained in this study and existing sequences of reference species show that the red oyster is the same species as C. ariakensis Wakiya [1929. Japanese food oysters. Jpn. J. Zool. 2, 359-367.], albeit the red oysters from north and south China are genetically distinctive. The white oyster is the same species as a newly described species from Hong Kong, C. hongkongensis Lam and Morton [2003. Mitochondrial DNA and identification of a new species of Crassostrea (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) cultured for centuries in the Pearl River Delta, Hong Kong, China. Aqua. 228, 1-13]. Although the name C. rivularis has seniority over C. ariakensis and C. hongkongensis, the original description of Ostrea rivularis by Gould [1861] does not fit shell characteristics of either the red or the white oysters. We propose that the name of C. rivularis Gould [1861] should be suspended, the red oyster should take the name C. ariakensis, and the white oyster should take the name C. hongkongensis.",
keywords = "16S rRNA, 28S rRNA, C. ariakensis, C. hongkongensis, Crassostrea rivularis, Cytochrome oxidase I, Taxonomy",
author = "Haiyan Wang and Ximing Guo and Guofan Zhang and Fusui Zhang",
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Classification of jinjiang oysters Crassostrea rivularis (Gould, 1861) from China, based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis. / Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Ximing; Zhang, Guofan; Zhang, Fusui.

In: Aquaculture, Vol. 242, No. 1-4, 20.12.2004, p. 137-155.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Classification of jinjiang oysters Crassostrea rivularis (Gould, 1861) from China, based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis

AU - Wang, Haiyan

AU - Guo, Ximing

AU - Zhang, Guofan

AU - Zhang, Fusui

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N2 - The jinjiang oyster Crassostrea rivularis [Gould, 1861. Descriptions of shells collected in the North Pacific Exploring Expedition under Captains Ringgold and Rodgers. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8 (April), 33-40] is one of the most important and best-known oysters in China. Based on the color of its flesh, two forms of C. rivularis are recognized and referred to as the "white meat" and "red meat" oysters. The classification of white and red forms of this species has been a subject of confusion and debate in China. To clarify the taxonomic status of the two forms of C. rivularis, we collected and analyzed oysters from five locations along China's coast using both morphological characters and DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I, and the nuclear 28S rRNA genes. Oysters were classified as white or red forms according to their morphological characteristics and then subjected to DNA sequencing. Both morphological and DNA sequence data suggest that the red and white oysters are two separate species. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences obtained in this study and existing sequences of reference species show that the red oyster is the same species as C. ariakensis Wakiya [1929. Japanese food oysters. Jpn. J. Zool. 2, 359-367.], albeit the red oysters from north and south China are genetically distinctive. The white oyster is the same species as a newly described species from Hong Kong, C. hongkongensis Lam and Morton [2003. Mitochondrial DNA and identification of a new species of Crassostrea (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) cultured for centuries in the Pearl River Delta, Hong Kong, China. Aqua. 228, 1-13]. Although the name C. rivularis has seniority over C. ariakensis and C. hongkongensis, the original description of Ostrea rivularis by Gould [1861] does not fit shell characteristics of either the red or the white oysters. We propose that the name of C. rivularis Gould [1861] should be suspended, the red oyster should take the name C. ariakensis, and the white oyster should take the name C. hongkongensis.

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KW - Cytochrome oxidase I

KW - Taxonomy

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