Clinical periodontal status and gingival crevicular fluid cytokine profile among cigarette-smokers, electronic-cigarette users and never-smokers

Munerah BinShabaib, Shatha Subhi ALHarthi, Zohaib Akram, Junad Khan, Irfan Rahman, Georgios E. Romanos, Fawad Javed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Scopus citations


Objective: There are no studies that have compared the clinical (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL]and number of missing teeth [MT])and radiographic (marginal bone loss [MBL])periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)levels of proinflammatory cytokines among cigarette-smokers and individuals using electronic-cigarettes. The aim was to compare the clinical periodontal status and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)cytokine profile among cigarette-smokers (Group-1), electronic-cigarette users (Group-2)and never-smokers (Group-3). Methods: Demographic data including age, gender, duration and reason for smoking and vaping and daily frequency and duration of smoking and vaping was collected using a questionnaire. Clinical (PI, BOP, PD and clinical AL)and radiographic (MBL)periodontal parameters were recorded. The volume of collected GCF was determined and levels of interleukin (IL)1β, IL-6, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)were investigated. Results: Forty-six cigarette-smokers, 44 electronic-cigarette users and 45 never-smokers were included in groups 1–3, respectively. Mean scores of PI (P < 0.05), PD (P < 0.05)and clinical AL (P < 0.05)were significantly higher among individuals in Group-1 than Group-3. Compared with groups 1 (P < 0.05)and 2 (P < 0.05), BOP was more often manifested among patients in Group-3. Compared with Group-3, MBL was significantly higher in groups 1 (P < 0.01)and 2 (P < 0.01). GCF volume was significantly higher in Group-1 compared with groups 2 and 3. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and MMP-8 were significantly higher in the GCF samples of individuals in Group-1 (P < 0.05)than groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: Periodontal status is poorer and GCF levels of proinflammatory cytokines are higher in cigarette-smokers compared with electronic-cigarette smokers and never-smokers. However, the probability of increased periodontal inflammation and GCF proinflammatory cytokine levels in electronic-cigarette users than never-smokers cannot be annulled.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)212-217
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of Oral Biology
StatePublished - Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Cell Biology


  • Dental plaque index
  • Electronic cigarettes
  • Periodontal index
  • Periodontal pocket
  • Smoking
  • Tooth loss

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