Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) refers to mechanical obstruction of the distal stomach or proximal duodenum and it is associated with a significant decrease in quality of life. Surgical gastrojejunostomy and self-expandable metal stents were the traditional treatment for GOO. Recently, endoscopic ultrasound guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) has emerged as a third therapeutic option for patients with GOO. Most EUS-GE techniques utilize the placement of a lumen-apposing metal stent under echoendoscopy but differ in the method of localizing the jejunal loop prior to EUS puncture. Data supporting EUS-GE have been promising. Case series including 10 or more cases showed the technical success rate to be approximately 90%. Clinical success is achieved in approximately 85-90% and a less than 18% risk of adverse events is reported. EUS-GE was associated with a lower recurrence of GOO and need for re-intervention when compared to enteral stenting. In addition, EUS-GE shows significantly fewer adverse events compared with surgical gastrojejunostomy. In conclusion, EUS-GE provides symptom relief without the risks of surgical intervention and the limited patency of enteral SEMS placement. EUS-GE is an exciting new option in the management of GOO. Despite the excellent results, randomized studies comparing these different modalities of treatment for GOO are needed before EUS-GE can be accepted as standard of care.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- EUS-guided gastrojejunostomy
- gastric outlet obstruction
- lumen-apposing metal stent
- therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound