Co-existence of classical and alternative activation programs in macrophages responding to Toxoplasma gondii

Veerupaxagouda Patil, Yanlin Zhao, Suhagi Shah, Barbara A. Fox, Leah M. Rommereim, David J. Bzik, George S. Yap

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages are critical for defense against intracellular pathogens while alternatively-activated M2 macrophages mediate tissue homeostasis and repair. Whether these distinct activation programs are mutually exclusive or can co-exist within the same cell is unclear. Here, we report the co-existence of these programs in Toxoplasma gondii-elicited inflammatory macrophages. This is independent of parasite expression of the virulence factor ROP16 and host cell expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6). Furthermore, this observation was recapitulated by IFN-γ and IL-4 treated bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. These results highlight the multi-functionality of macrophages as they respond to diverse microbial and endogenous stimuli.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)161-164
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Journal for Parasitology
Volume44
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Keywords

  • Alternative activation
  • Classical activation
  • Macrophage
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Virulence factor

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