Colistin is increasingly used as an antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. The plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was initially identified in animal and clinical samples from China and subsequently reported worldwide, including in the United States. Of particular concern is the spread of mcr-1 into carbapenem-resistant bacteria, thereby creating strains that approach pan-resistance. While several reports of mcr-1 have involved carbapenem-resistant strains, no such isolates have been described in the United States. Here, we report the isolation and identification of an Escherichia coli strain harboring both mcr-1 and carbapenemase gene blaNDM-5 from a urine sample in a patient without recent travel outside the United States. The isolate exhibited resistance to both colistin and carbapenems, but was susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The mcr-1- and blaNDM-5-harboring plasmids were completely sequenced and shown to be highly similar to plasmids previously reported from China. The strain in this report was first isolated in August 2014, highlighting an earlier presence of mcr-1 within the United States than previously recognized. IMPORTANCE Colistin has become the last line of defense for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics, in particular carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Resistance to colistin, encoded by the plasmid-borne gene mcr-1, was first identified in animal and clinical samples from China in November 2015 and has subsequently been reported from numerous other countries. In April 2016, mcr-1 was identified in a carbapenem-susceptible Escherichia coli strain from a clinical sample in the United States, followed by a second report from a carbapenem-susceptible E. coli strain originally isolated in May 2015. We report the isolation and identification of an E. coli strain harboring both colistin (mcr-1) and carbapenem (blaNDM-5) resistance genes, originally isolated in August 2014 from urine of a patient with recurrent urinary tract infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the United States of a clinical bacterial isolate with both colistin and carbapenem resistance, highlighting the importance of active surveillance efforts for colistin- and carbapenemresistant organisms.
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