BACKGROUND: The authors hypothesized that peri-implant clinical and radiographic inflammatory parameters are worse in waterpipe smokers (WS) and cigarette smokers (CS) compared with never-smokers (NS). The aim of the present retrospective study is to compare peri-implant clinical and radiographic inflammatory parameters among WS, CS, and NS. METHODS: Forty-four CS (group 1), 41 WS (group 2), and 43 NS (group 3) were included. Demographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Peri-implant plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and probing depth (PD) were measured, and crestal bone loss (CBL) was assessed on standardized digital radiographs. Sample size was estimated, and statistical analyses were performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. For multiple comparisons, Bonferroni post hoc test was performed. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Peri-implant PI and PD were higher in groups 1 (P < 0.05) and 2 (P < 0.05) compared with group 3. Peri-implant BOP was significantly higher in group 3 compared with individuals in groups 1 (P < 0.01) and 2 (P < 0.01). Peri-implant total marginal bone loss was significantly higher in groups 1 (P < 0.05) and 2 (P < 0.05) compared with group 3. There were differences in PI, BOP, PD, and CBL among participants in groups 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS: Peri-implant soft tissue inflammatory parameters and CBL are worse in CS and WS compared with NS. There is no difference in these parameters between CS and WS.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Alveolar bone loss
- dental implants
- periodontal index
- surveys and questionnaires