Background: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare smooth muscle neoplasm typically presenting in the fifth to sixth decades of life with both intraluminal and extraluminal growth patterns. Surgical resection remains the gold standard for nonmetastatic disease and often requires vascular reconstruction. We present an atypical case of leiomyosarcoma involving both the IVC and infrarenal abdominal aorta necessitating reconstruction with intraoperative veno-venous bypass. Methods: A 63-year-old man initially presenting with back pain was found to have a large mass adjacent to the IVC on MRI, subsequently confirmed to be leiomyosarcoma by biopsy. After 6 months of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the patient was taken for resection. However, intraoperatively the tumor was found to involve the aorta necessitating combined aorto-caval reconstruction. To facilitate en-bloc resection of the tumor, the aorta was reconstructed first followed by the inferior vena cava using veno-venous bypass. Results: Postoperatively, the patient was taken to the intensive care unit for resuscitation and had an uncomplicated hospital course. He was discharged to rehab 6 days postoperatively and at one year remains free of significant tumor burden with patent aorto-caval bypass grafts. Conclusions: Primary leiomyosarcoma of the IVC is estimated to have aortic involvement in <10% of cases and concurrent aorto-caval reconstruction can be a well-tolerated option in good surgical candidates. Furthermore, veno-venous bypass can be a useful tool for accomplishing successful oncologic resections. With interdisciplinary collaboration between surgical oncologists, urologists, and vascular surgeons, difficult pathologies can be addressed with good patient outcomes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine