Maintenance, rehabilitation and repair of concrete bridge decks represent one of the major financial and operational challenges for transportation agencies. The current prevailing practice of deck evaluation using visual inspection, chain drag and hammer sounding provides information when deterioration has already progressed to the extent that moderate to major rehabilitation is needed. Condition assessment can be done more comprehensively by using modern NDE methods, like: impact echo (IE), ground penetrating radar (GPR), half-cell potential (HCP), ultrasonic surface waves (USW), electrical resistivity (ER), etc. Their usage is especially effective, if a complementary approach is implemented in their application. Still, the methods have not been adopted by the agencies, primarily due to limited speed of the surveys and higher cost with respect to the traditional approaches. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is investigating through its Technology Innovation Program (TIP) technologies that will address critical national infrastructure issues. One of them is evaluation, monitoring and rehabilitation of bridge decks through the ANDERS project. This paper describes the use of traditional methods and modern NDE technologies in condition assessment of decks, and provides an overview of the main objectives of the ANDERS project.