Contingency distance factors and international research and development (R&D), marketing, and manufacturing alliance formations

Jeongho Choi, Sengun Yeniyurt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


This study contributes to the international alliance formation literature by extending and examining the differences between international Research and Development (R&D), and international marketing and manufacturing alliances in terms of distance. Distance is conceptualized as multiple contingency factors: national, industry, and firm. With a sample of 110 pharmaceutical alliances, spanning 11 years, from 2000 to 2010, we find that there are significant differences among the different types of international alliance formation regarding distance. The results support the view that R&D alliances tend to have a smaller national, industry, and firm-specific distance than marketing and manufacturing alliances. In addition, the pattern of R&D alliance formation confirms the argument that firms take advantage of both exogenous and endogenous location economies by forming international R&D alliances with infrastructural, institutional, and technological proximity between countries of partnering firms. On the other hand, firms get involved in international marketing and manufacturing alliances even though when the distance between partnering firms with regard to institutional, infrastructure, industrial environments, and technological bases is large.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1061-1071
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Business Review
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Business and International Management
  • Finance
  • Marketing


  • Alliance formations
  • Contingency distance factors
  • Distance
  • International strategic alliance
  • Knowledge-intensive industry


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